Does the fact that statisical tests cannot provide unambiguous refutations of economic theory imply that we learn nothing from statistical analysis? I would argue definitely NO, we can learn a lot from statistical analysis. But what we cannot do is "test" theories with statistical tests. Does it also mean that we cannot refute economic theories? Again, I would argue NO. Refutations of "theoretical" propositions result from demonstrations of logical error, and one can also demonstrate the irrelevance of a logical argument to a contemporary problem due to the inapplicability of the theory to the situation to be examined because one or more of the various subsidiary assumptions that make up the network of statements that constitute a theoretical construction might not hold.